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Normal urine is usually a pale yellow; however, when kidney function is affected, it may appear as colorless, tea-colored, dark-orange or red.
U-TP (urine-total protein)
In normal condition, the total excretion of protein in urine is less than 150mg/dL and they can not be detected with routine urine test. However, when kidneys are damaged, large amounts of protein will leak into urine, which is the real cause for kidney disease patients to experience foamy urine.
U-malb (urine-micro albumin)
In a healthy kidney, glomerular filtration membrane works through charger barrier and mechanical barrier. When the amount of micro albumin in urine is above 300mg/dL, it always indicates damages in mechanical barrier.
U-TRF over 1.9mg/dL can be an indicator for damages in charge barrier.
Appearance of large amounts of IgG (more than 8.8mg/dL) usually means glomerular filtration membrane has been impaired severely.
α1-M (urine α1 microglobulin) and β2-M (urine β2 microglobulin)
α1-M (urine α1 microglobulin) and β2 microglobulin are another two substance that we may find in urine when there is kidney problem. According to clinical studies, when β2 microglobulin in urine is more than 5.8mg/dL, it always indicates impairment of reabsorption function of renal tubule.
Red blood cells in urine
With kidney damages, excess red blood cells may leak into urine and this may lead to hematuria. Therefore, by measuring the account of red blood cells in urine, we can know if the patient is suffering from hematuria.
Urine-NAG and urine-GGT
Urine-NAG and urine-GGT usually imply inflammatory damage to renal tubular epithelial cells.
Urine osmotic pressure
Urine osmotic pressure is usually measured to reflect the concentration and dilution function of distal renal tubules.