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A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a needle, or via fingerprick. Blood tests are used to determine physiological and biochemical states, including disease, mineral content, drug effectiveness, and organ function. Also blood tests are used in drug tests.
Blood tests contain biochemical analysis, molecular profile and cellular evaluation. And now we will give you a detailed information of blood tests types.
1. Biochemical analysis
A basic metabolic panel measures sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen, magnesium, creatinine, glucose and sometimes includes calcium. Blood tests which focuses on cholesterol levels can determine LDL and HDL cholesterol levels, as well as triglyceride levels.
Some blood tests which are used to measure glucose, cholesterol or determine the existence or lack of STD, need no food consumption eight to twelve hours before the time of drawing of the blood sample.
Most blood tests, blood is drew from the patient’s vein while blood of some specialized blood tests, like arterial blood gas, should be extracted from an artery. Blood gas analysis o artery blood is used to measure carbon dioxide and oxygen level which is related to pulmonary function, but it is also used to measure blood PH and bicarbonate levels for certain metabolic conditions.
2. Molecular profiles
Western blot -it is a general technique and not a specific test.
Liver function tests
Sexually transmitted diseases
Polymerase chain reaction
3. Cellular evaluation
Complete blood count
Hematocrit and MCV which means corpuscular volume.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Cross-matching which determines blood type for blood transfusion or transplants.
Blood cultures are usually taken if you doubt you have infection. Positive cultures and resulting sensitivity results are helpful in guiding medical treatment.
In summary, blood tests are used to see how your body is working. However, your doctor cannot diagnose many diseases and medical problems with blood tests alone. Some factors such as your signs and symptoms, medical report, blood pressure, breathing, pulse, temperature, and results from other tests and procedures helps your doctor to confirm a diagnosis.